Sunday, August 30, 2015

Big Bang Theory for Kids (videos, documents)


The beginning of the human story begins with the Big Bang theory. The Big Bang is the beginning of creation and tells us how our universe came to be. One of the most amazing concepts presented in the Big Bang theory for kids, is that all of the elements on earth are made from stars. That includes you and me. The fact that we are made from stars that exploded in outer space is truly amazing and one of the most incredible aspects of life.



To begin exploring the Big Bang theory, you may want to check out this site: DK Find Out: The Big Bang. It discusses how approximately 13.7 billion years ago, the universe expanded from a point smaller than an atom, to our ever-growing universe. No one knows what caused the initial expansion of the small, dense point called the "singularity" to explode, then expand. Though there are many religions that have their own creation stories, most scientists accept the Big Bang theory as the explanation for how the universe came to be. No one knows what existed before the point of singularity.
Georges Lemaitre

While some religions don't accept the scientific theory of the Big Bang, it was actually a Catholic priest and astronomer named Georges LemaĆ®tre, who in 1927 who came up with the Big Bang theory.

It is believed that all of the energy and matter we see today was created and released during the Big Bang. The matter changed until it became protons and neutrons, then atoms, elements and galaxies. You may watch a brief movie showing the History of the Universe in 10 minutes below.





Here is another video that provides a thorough and deep look at the Big Bang theory and addresses many questions people have regarding the Universe.



Transcript: 00:03 male narrator: BILLIONS AND BILLIONS OF GALAXIES--
00:06 THE UNIVERSE IS SO VAST,
00:08 WE CAN'T EVEN IMAGINE WHAT THOSE NUMBERS MEAN,
00:12 BUT 14 BILLION YEARS AGO,
00:14 NONE OF IT EXISTED...
00:19 UNTIL THE BIG BANG.
00:22 - THE BIG BANG IS THE ORIGIN OF SPACE
00:26 AND THE ORIGIN OF TIME ITSELF.
00:29 narrator: WE TAKE A JOURNEY THROUGH SPACE AND TIME,
00:33 FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE END
00:35 OF THE UNIVERSE ITSELF.
00:37 [dramatic music]
00:53 THIS IS OUR WORLD...
01:00 CITIES,
01:02 FORESTS,
01:05 OCEANS,
01:07 PEOPLE.
01:09 EVERYTHING IN THE UNIVERSE IS MADE FROM MATTER
01:13 CREATED IN THE FIRST SECONDS OF THE BIG BANG...
01:25 EVERY STAR,
01:27 EVERY PLANET,
01:30 EVERY ATOM,
01:32 EVERY BLADE OF GRASS,
01:34 EVERY DROP OF WATER.
01:38 - WATER IS ANCIENT.
01:39 THE HYDROGEN ATOMS IN HERE
01:41 WERE BORN MOMENTS AFTER THE BIG BANG.
01:44 THEN CAME EVERYTHING ELSE.
01:47 narrator: THE BIG BANG
01:49 IS THE DEFINING EVENT OF OUR UNIVERSE
01:52 AND EVERYTHING IN IT.
02:01 THE SECRETS OF OUR PAST,
02:03 OUR PRESENT, AND OUR FUTURE
02:06 ARE LOCKED INSIDE
02:08 THIS ONE MOMENT IN TIME.
02:12 TO UNLOCK THE SECRETS OF THE BIG BANG,
02:15 WE HAVE TO TRAVEL OUTSIDE OF OUR OWN SOLAR SYSTEM
02:19 AND JOURNEY BEYOND EVEN OUR OWN GALAXY.
02:28 AS WE TRAVEL INTO DEEP SPACE,
02:31 WE'RE ACTUALLY SEEING INTO THE PAST....
02:36 AND GETTING CLOSER TO BEING ABLE TO WITNESS
02:39 THE DAWN OF TIME ITSELF.
02:42 PASSING THE FIRST INFANT GALAXIES
02:45 AND THE FIRST STARS...
02:50 WE ARRIVE BACK AT THE MOMENT THE UNIVERSE BEGAN
02:53 AND FACE THE BIGGEST QUESTIONS IN ALL OF SCIENCE.
03:03 - THIS IS THE HOLY GRAIL OF PHYSICS.
03:06 WE WANT TO KNOW WHY IT BANGED.
03:07 WE WANT TO KNOW WHAT BANG.
03:09 WE WANT TO KNOW WHAT WAS THERE BEFORE THE BANG.
03:13 narrator: TO GET THE ANSWERS,
03:15 WE'VE BUILT MACHINES THE SIZE OF CITIES
03:17 TO SIMULATE CONDITIONS WHEN THE UNIVERSE WAS CREATED
03:22 AND SPACE TELESCOPES
03:25 TO PEER DEEP INTO OUR PAST.
03:34 - WE ARE GETTING CLOSE TO ANSWERING
03:35 THE OLD-AGE QUESTIONS:
03:38 WHY ARE WE HERE?
03:40 WHERE DID WE COME FROM?
03:42 DOES THE UNIVERSE, IN FACT,
03:45 HAVE A BEGINNING OR AN END?
03:47 AND IF SO, WHAT ARE THEY LIKE?
03:51 IF WE FIND THE ANSWER TO THAT,
03:53 IT WOULD BE THE ULTIMATE TRIUMPH OF HUMAN REASON.
03:57 WE WOULD KNOW THE MIND OF GOD.
04:08 narrator: THE ORIGIN OF THE BIG BANG
04:10 IS THE GREATEST MYSTERY OF ALL TIME,
04:14 AND THE MORE WE LEARN,
04:16 THE DEEPER THE MYSTERY BECOMES.
04:19 - WE LIKE TO THINK THAT OUR UNIVERSE IS UNIQUE.
04:22 HOWEVER, NOW WE'RE NOT SO SURE.
04:24 PERHAPS THERE IS A MULTIVERSE OF UNIVERSES.
04:29 - ANOTHER POSSIBILITY IS THAT OUR BIG BANG
04:32 IS JUST ONE OF MANY BIG BANGS,
04:34 BUT IT MAY BE ONE OF JUST AN INFINITE NUMBER OF UNIVERSES,
04:37 AND THERE MAY BE OTHER REGIONS
04:39 IN THAT INFINITE NUMBER OF UNIVERSES
04:41 WHERE A BIG BANG IS JUST HAPPENING TODAY.
04:46 narrator: BUT THERE'S ONLY ONE UNIVERSE WE'RE SURE OF,
04:49 AND UNDERSTANDING THIS ONE IS HARD ENOUGH.
04:57 SINCE THE LATE 1920s,
04:59 EVERYTHING WE KNOW ABOUT HOW OUR UNIVERSE WORKS
05:02 HAS BEEN TURNED UPSIDE DOWN.
05:05 - IT'S IMPORTANT TO REALIZE
05:07 HOW MUCH OUR PICTURE OF THE UNIVERSE HAS CHANGED
05:09 IN THE LAST CENTURY.
05:10 AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY,
05:12 THE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM IN SCIENCE
05:14 WAS THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS STATIC AND ETERNAL.
05:16 narrator: IN 1929, THAT ALL CHANGED.
05:20 AT THE MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY ABOVE LOS ANGELES,
05:23 ASTRONOMER EDWIN HUBBLE
05:26 DISCOVERED GALAXIES AREN'T STUCK IN ONE PLACE.
05:30 NOT ONLY ARE THEY MOVING,
05:32 BUT THEY'RE FLYING AWAY FROM EARTH
05:34 AT INCREDIBLE SPEEDS.
05:39 THIS WAS THE FIRST REAL EVIDENCE OF THE BIG BANG.
05:46 - ALL GALAXIES, ON AVERAGE, ARE MOVING AWAY FROM US,
05:49 AND STRANGER STILL, THOSE THAT WERE TWICE AS FAR AWAY
05:52 ARE MOVING TWICE AS FAST,
05:54 AND THOSE THAT WERE THREE TIMES AS FAR AWAY
05:56 WERE MOVING THREE TIMES AS FAST, AND SO ON.
05:59 EVERYTHING WAS MOVING AWAY FROM US.
06:01 narrator: IT BECAME KNOWN AS HUBBLE'S LAW.
06:04 HIS DISCOVERY IS STILL THE STARTING POINT
06:07 FOR EXPLORATION OF THE BIG BANG.
06:10 - WHAT HUBBLE CONVINCINGLY DEMONSTRATED,
06:13 BY SEEING THE MOTION OF THOSE GALAXIES,
06:16 IS THAT THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING.
06:21 narrator: THEORETICALLY, AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE
06:23 MUST HAVE STARTED FROM A SINGLE POINT.
06:29 BY MEASURING HOW FAST THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING,
06:33 ASTRONOMERS CALCULATED BACKWARDS
06:35 AND FIGURED OUT WHEN IT BURST INTO LIFE.
06:38 - PEOPLE ASK THE QUESTION, "HOW DO YOU KNOW
06:41 "THAT THE UNIVERSE IS 13 BILLION YEARS OLD?
06:45 "I MEAN, SMARTY-PANTS,
06:47 YOU WEREN'T THERE 13 BILLION YEARS AGO."
06:50 WELL, WHEN YOU WATCH TELEVISION, ON VIDEOTAPE,
06:53 YOU HIT THE STOP BUTTON WHEN YOU SEE AN EXPLOSION,
06:55 AND YOU COULD RUN IT BACKWARDS
06:57 AND SEE WHEN IT ACTUALLY TOOK PLACE.
07:00 THE SAME THING TAKES PLACE WITH COSMOLOGY.
07:02 WE CAN RUN THE VIDEOTAPE BACKWARDS
07:04 AND CALCULATE WHEN IT ALL CAME FROM A COSMIC EXPLOSION.
07:13 narrator: YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE AN ASTRONOMER
07:16 TO LOOK BACK IN TIME.
07:19 IF YOU GAZE UP AT THE NIGHT SKY,
07:22 YOU'RE SEEING STARS THAT ARE MILLIONS OF LIGHT-YEARS AWAY,
07:25 MEANING IT TOOK THE LIGHT FROM THOSE STARS
07:29 MILLIONS OF YEARS TO GET HERE.
07:31 SO IF YOU LOOK FAR ENOUGH,
07:34 YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO SEE
07:36 THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE.
07:42 NAMED FOR THE GROUNDBREAKING ASTRONOMER,
07:44 THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE
07:46 ALLOWS US TO LOOK DEEP INTO THE UNIVERSE,
07:49 BACK IN TIME,
07:51 AND CLOSER TO THE MOMENT OF THE BIG BANG.
07:55 BUT FOR SCIENTISTS,
07:57 WINDING BACK THE CLOCK TO THE BIG BANG
07:59 WAS ONLY THE FIRST STEP.
08:06 - WHEN PEOPLE FIRST HEAR ABOUT THE BIG BANG THEORY,
08:08 THEY SAY, "WELL, WHERE DID IT TAKE PLACE?
08:10 "IT TOOK PLACE OVER THERE. IT TOOK PLACE OVER THERE.
08:12 WHERE DID IT TAKE PLACE?"
08:14 ACTUALLY, IT TOOK PLACE EVERYWHERE,
08:16 BECAUSE THE UNIVERSE ITSELF
08:18 WAS EXTREMELY SMALL AT THAT TIME.
08:25 narrator: THESE ARE ONLY SOME OF THE MOST ABSTRACT
08:28 AND DIFFICULT CONCEPTS THERE ARE,
08:30 SO HERE'S A MIND-BENDER.
08:31 WHAT CAME BEFORE THE BIG BANG?
08:34 - THE PHILOSOPHERS IN ANCIENT TIMES
08:36 USED TO SAY, "HOW COULD SOMETHING ARISE FROM NOTHING?"
08:39 AND WHAT'S AMAZING TO ME
08:41 IS THAT THE LAWS OF PHYSICS ALLOW THAT TO HAPPEN,
08:44 AND IT MEANS THAT OUR WHOLE UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING WE SEE,
08:47 EVERYTHING THAT MATTERS TO US TODAY
08:49 COULD HAVE ARISEN OUT OF PRECISELY NOTHING.
08:52 narrator: IT'S ONE OF THE BIGGEST HURDLES
08:55 TO UNDERSTANDING THE BIG BANG.
08:57 FIRST YOU HAVE TO BUY INTO THE PREMISE
08:59 THAT SOMETHING WAS CREATED OUT OF NOTHING.
09:03 - IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO DESCRIBE THE MOMENT OF CREATION
09:06 IN HUMAN LANGUAGE.
09:08 ALL WE KNOW IS THAT FROM WHAT MAY HAVE BEEN NOTHING,
09:10 WE GO TO A STATE
09:12 OF ALMOST INFINITE DENSITY
09:16 AND INFINITE TEMPERATURE AND INFINITE VIOLENCE.
09:23 narrator: UNDERSTANDING HOW NOTHING TURNED INTO SOMETHING
09:26 MAY BE THE GREATEST MYSTERY OF OUR UNIVERSE,
09:30 BUT IF YOU UNDERSTAND THAT,
09:33 YOU START TO UNDERSTAND THE BIG BANG,
09:36 WHEN TIME AND SPACE BEGAN
09:38 AND A GREAT BIG EXPLOSION CREATED EVERYTHING.
09:55 AT THE DAWN OF TIME,
09:57 THE UNIVERSE EXPLODES INTO EXISTENCE
09:59 FROM ABSOLUTELY NOTHING INTO EVERYTHING.
10:03 BUT EVERYTHING IS ACTUALLY A SINGLE POINT,
10:07 INFINITELY SMALL, UNIMAGINABLY HOT,
10:11 A SUPER-DENSE SPECK OF PURE ENERGY.
10:15 - THE BIG BANG WAS SO IMMENSE
10:19 THAT IT BROUGHT INTO EXISTENCE
10:22 ALL OF THE MASS AND ALL OF THE ENERGY
10:25 CONTAINED IN ALL OF THE 400 BILLION GALAXIES
10:28 WE SEE IN OUR UNIVERSE
10:29 IN A REGION SMALLER THAN THE SIZE OF A SINGLE ATOM.
10:34 THE ENTIRE OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE
10:36 WAS A MILLIONTH OF A BILLIONTH OF A CENTIMETER ACROSS
10:38 AT THAT TIME.
10:40 EVERYTHING WAS COMPRESSED INTO AN INCREDIBLY HOT, DENSE REGION.
10:43 narrator: IT'S NOT EVEN MATTER YET,
10:45 JUST A POINT OF RAGING ENERGY.
10:48 IT WAS THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE
10:51 AND EVERYTHING IN IT.
10:53 - EVERYTHING WAS SIMPLE.
10:55 ALL THE FORCES THAT WE KNOW ABOUT TODAY
10:57 WERE ONE IN THE SAME.
10:59 THE UNIVERSE WAS AN AMORPHOUS KIND OF STRUCTURE.
11:08 narrator: IN THAT INSTANT OF CREATION,
11:10 ALL THE LAWS OF PHYSICS,
11:12 THE VERY FORCES THAT ENGINEER OUR UNIVERSE,
11:15 BEGAN TO TAKE SHAPE.
11:20 THE FIRST FORCE TO EMERGE WAS GRAVITY.
11:25 THE FATE OF THE UNIVERSE,
11:27 IT'S SIZE, STRUCTURE, AND EVERYTHING IN IT
11:30 WAS DECIDED IN THAT MOMENT.
11:36 CARLOS FRENK STUDIES HOW GRAVITY SHAPED THE UNIVERSE
11:40 BY CREATING ARTIFICIAL UNIVERSES
11:42 IN THIS SUPERCOMPUTER.
11:47 HE GIVES EACH ONE A DIFFERENT AMOUNT OF GRAVITY.
11:52 THE FIRST ONE HE TRIED HAD TOO LITTLE,
11:55 RESULTING IN, WELL, NOTHING.
11:59 - GRAVITY, IT HAS SHAPED OUR UNIVERSE.
12:02 IF GRAVITY WAS WEAKER THAN IT IS,
12:05 WE WOULD HAVE A VERY BORING UNIVERSE
12:08 IN WHICH EVERYTHING WOULD BE FLYING APART SO FAST
12:12 THAT THERE WOULD BE NO GALAXIES FORMING.
12:15 narrator: NEXT, HE PROGRAMMED A UNIVERSE
12:17 WITH TOO MUCH GRAVITY.
12:23 - IF GRAVITY WAS STRONGER THAN WE THINK IT IS,
12:25 AGAIN, WE'LL END UP WITH A FAILED UNIVERSE.
12:27 EVERYTHING WILL END UP IN BLACK HOLES.
12:31 IT HAS TO BE JUST SO.
12:33 IT HAS TO BE JUST RIGHT.
12:35 narrator: LUCKY FOR US, THE BIG BANG GOT IT JUST RIGHT,
12:39 THE PERFECT AMOUNT OF GRAVITY.
12:42 IN THE TURMOIL OF FORCES AFTER GRAVITY EMERGED,
12:45 STILL A FRACTION OF A SECOND AFTER THE BIG BANG,
12:48 A SHOCK WAVE OF ENERGY ERUPTED
12:50 AND EXPANDED THE UNIVERSE
12:52 IN ALL DIRECTIONS AT INCREDIBLE SPEED.
13:00 - ALL OF SPACE EXPANDED BY AN UNBELIEVABLY LARGE FACTOR
13:04 IN A FRACTION OF SECOND.
13:06 WE THINK THAT IN LESS THAN A MILLIONTH OF A MILLIONTH
13:09 OF A MILLIONTH OF A MILLIONTH OF A SECOND,
13:12 SPACE EXPANDED BY A FACTOR
13:15 BIGGER THAN A MILLION MILLION
13:18 MILLION MILLION TIMES.
13:28 narrator: AND FOR THE RECORD,
13:30 THAT'S FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT.
13:32 BUT WAIT.
13:34 DOESN'T THAT BREAK ONE OF THE LAWS OF PHYSICS?
13:40 - EVEN SCHOOLCHILDREN KNOW
13:42 THAT "YOU CAN'T GO FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT."
13:45 BUT ACTUALLY, THERE'S A LOOPHOLE THERE.
13:47 YOU SEE, NOTHING CAN GO FASTER THAN LIGHT,
13:49 NOTHING BEING EMPTY SPACE.
13:51 narrator: DON'T WORRY.
13:53 THIS IDEA GIVES EVEN THE BEST MINDS IN SCIENCE A HEADACHE,
13:56 BUT IT'S CRITICAL
13:58 TO UNDERSTANDING THE EARLY UNIVERSE.
14:01 SCIENTISTS THINK IT TOOK LESS THAN A MILLIONTH OF A MILLIONTH
14:05 OF A MILLIONTH OF A MILLIONTH OF A SECOND
14:07 FOR THE UNIVERSE TO EXPAND
14:09 FROM THE SIZE OF AN ATOM TO A BASEBALL.
14:12 THAT MAY NOT SOUND LIKE MUCH,
14:15 BUT IT'S LIKE A GOLF BALL
14:17 EXPANDING TO THE SIZE OF THE EARTH
14:19 IN THE SAME AMOUNT OF TIME.
14:21 THAT MEANS IT WAS EXPANDING FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT.
14:24 THAT'S FAST.
14:27 - SO MANY THINGS WERE HAPPENING SO FAST IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE,
14:30 BECAUSE EVERYTHING WAS SO CLOSE TOGETHER,
14:33 THAT WE NEEDED A NEW UNIT OF TIME TO DESCRIBE THINGS.
14:35 narrator: IT'S CALLED PLANCK TIME.
14:38 TO UNDERSTAND JUST HOW SHORT A PLANCK TIME IS,
14:41 CONSIDER THIS.
14:43 THERE ARE MORE UNITS OF PLANCK TIME IN ONE SECOND
14:45 THAN ALL THE SECONDS SINCE THE BIG BANG.
14:48 THE MATH IS MIND-BLOWING.
14:50 THERE ARE MORE THAN 31 MILLION SECONDS IN A YEAR,
14:53 AND IT'S BEEN 14 BILLION YEARS SINCE THE BIG BANG.
14:56 SO MULTIPLY
14:58 31,556,926
15:02 BY 14 BILLION,
15:04 AND WHAT YOU GET IS A REALLY BIG NUMBER.
15:06 - IT'S A TIME SCALE THAT'S SO SMALL
15:08 THAT ALL HUMAN INTUITION GOES OUT THE WINDOW.
15:11 IF WE LOOK AT OUR WATCHES AND MEASURE ONE SECOND,
15:14 WE CAN ASK, HOW MANY PLANCK TIMES IS THAT?
15:17 WELL, IT IS A BILLION
15:20 BILLION BILLION
15:22 BILLION BILLION PLANCK TIMES.
15:31 narrator: SO NOW THE BIG BANG
15:33 IS ONLY A FEW PLANCK TIMES OLD,
15:35 AN EXPLODING MASS OF PURE ENERGY
15:38 EXPANDING FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT.
15:43 IN THE NEXT FEW PLANCK TIMES,
15:45 THE UNIVERSE AS WE KNOW IT WILL BE BORN.
15:53 A FRACTION OF A SECOND AFTER THE BIG BANG,
15:57 THE UNIVERSE IS SO SMALL,
15:59 IT CAN FIT IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND.
16:02 BUT IN ANOTHER TINY FRACTION OF A SECOND,
16:06 IT EXPANDS TO THE SIZE OF THE EARTH.
16:09 THEN, MOVING FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT,
16:12 IT GROWS LARGER THAN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM,
16:15 AND IT'S STILL JUST A RAGING STORM
16:18 OF SUPERHEATED ENERGY.
16:21 - IT'D BE HOTTER AND DENSER
16:23 AND MORE VIOLENT THAN ANYTHING
16:25 THAT WE CAN EXPERIENCE IN THE UNIVERSE TODAY.
16:28 EVEN THE INTERIOR OF A STAR
16:31 IS CALM AND SERENE BY COMPARISON
16:34 TO THE VIOLENCE OF THE EARLIEST MOMENTS OF THE BIG BANG.
16:38 - TEMPERATURES WERE SO HOT
16:40 THAT EVEN THE ATOMS OF YOUR BODY WOULD DISINTEGRATE,
16:43 SO HOT, IN FACT, THAT THE ATOMS WOULD BE RIPPED APART.
16:46 narrator: HOW HOT? TRILLIONS OF DEGREES HOT.
16:50 BUT AS THE UNIVERSE CONTINUES TO EXPAND,
16:53 IT ALSO BEGINS TO COOL.
16:55 DROPPING TEMPERATURES TRIGGER THE NEXT STAGE
16:57 OF THE UNIVERSE'S EVOLUTION.
17:01 THE RAW ENERGY OF THE EXPLOSION
17:04 TRANSFORMS INTO TINY SUBATOMIC PARTICLES.
17:11 IT'S THE FIRST MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE.
17:18 THIS CONVERSION OF ENERGY INTO MATTER
17:20 WAS PREDICTED BY ALBERT EINSTEIN
17:22 YEARS BEFORE ANYONE STARTED TALKING ABOUT THE BIG BANG.
17:29 IT'S THE ONE SCIENTIFIC EQUATION
17:31 EVERY SCHOOLKID KNOWS.
17:33 - THERE IS ONE VERY FAMILIAR FORMULA,
17:36 AND THAT IS "E" EQUALS "MC" SQUARED.
17:39 IT SAYS SOMETHING ABOUT THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE.
17:41 IT SAYS EVEN IF THE UNIVERSE WAS CREATED JUST OUT OF PURE ENERGY
17:45 THAT BECAUSE ENERGY CAN BE CONVERTED TO MATTER
17:47 AND MATTER TO ENERGY
17:49 THAT YOU CAN GET ALL OF THE STUFF
17:51 THAT WE SEE IN THE UNIVERSE FROM THIS PURE ENERGETIC EVENT.
17:54 narrator: EINSTEIN'S LITTLE EQUATION
17:57 HAD A BIG IMPACT.
18:09 IT LED TO THE FIRST NUCLEAR BOMBS.
18:15 IN A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION,
18:17 A SMALL AMOUNT OF MATTER
18:19 IS CONVERTED INTO AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF ENERGY.
18:24 AS THE UNIVERSE WAS FORMING, THE EXACT OPPOSITE HAPPENED.
18:30 PURE ENERGY TRANSFORMED
18:33 INTO PARTICLES OF MATTER.
18:35 - YOU DON'T NEED TO CREATE MATTER IN THE BEGINNING.
18:37 YOU JUST NEED ENERGY, AND ENERGY ALONE
18:40 CAN LEAD TO THE CREATION OF AN ENTIRE UNIVERSE.
18:45 narrator: IN JUST A FRACTION OF A SECOND AFTER THE BIG BANG,
18:48 THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF OUR UNIVERSE BEGIN TO TAKE SHAPE.
18:54 BUT THIS FIRST MATTER
18:56 IS LIKE NOTHING WE SEE TODAY.
19:00 - THE STUFF OF MATTER HAS BEEN VERY DIFFERENT
19:02 OVER THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE.
19:04 WHAT WE NOW THINK AS NORMAL MATTER WAS NOT AT ALL NORMAL
19:07 IN THE EARLIEST MOMENTS OF THE BIG BANG.
19:11 narrator: THAT'S BECAUSE CONDITIONS WERE SO EXTREME.
19:13 THERE WERE NO ATOMS YET,
19:17 BUT THERE WERE TINY SUBATOMIC PARTICLES.
19:23 - THE EARLIEST MOMENTS OF THE BIG BANG,
19:25 THE UNIVERSE WAS SO HOT AND DENSE
19:27 THERE WERE GREAT AMOUNTS OF ENERGY.
19:29 AND SO PARTICLES WERE BEING CREATED ALL THE TIME.
19:32 AND ENERGY AND MATTER WERE TRANSFERRING BACK AND FORTH
19:34 IN THIS HOT, DENSE SOUP.
19:38 narrator: THAT EARLIEST MATTER WAS TOO UNSTABLE
19:41 TO START FORMING THE UNIVERSE AS WE KNOW IT.
19:48 THINK OF IT LIKE THIS:
19:50 IMAGINE RUSH HOUR AT GRAND CENTRAL IN NEW YORK CITY
19:53 AS THAT SUPERHEATED EARLY UNIVERSE.
19:56 THE COMMUTERS RACING THROUGH THE MAIN CONCOURSE
19:59 ARE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES.
20:04 - IF YOU LOOK AT A CROWD OF PEOPLE,
20:06 A LARGE CROWD OF PEOPLE,
20:08 THEY MAY APPEAR RANDOM.
20:10 THAT RANDOM, QUIRKY MOTION
20:12 IS VERY SIMILAR TO WHAT WAS HAPPENING
20:14 TO THE PARTICLES IN THE UNIVERSE
20:16 IN THE EARLIEST MOMENTS OF THE BIG BANG.
20:20 narrator: THE EXTREME TEMPERATURE
20:22 OF THE EARLY UNIVERSE ENERGIZES THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES.
20:26 THEY APPEAR.
20:28 THEY DISAPPEAR.
20:32 THEY RACE AROUND AT INCREDIBLE SPEEDS.
20:34 IT'S PURE CHAOS.
20:42 - IT'S LIKE PEOPLE.
20:44 IF THEY'RE EXCITED AND RUNNING AROUND FAST
20:46 TO CATCH TRAINS IN A TRAIN STATION,
20:48 THEY'LL BE MOVING AROUND QUICKLY,
20:50 BUT EVENTUALLY, THEY CALM DOWN AND GET SLOWER.
20:54 THAT'S WHAT'S BEEN HAPPENING TO OUR UNIVERSE IN A SENSE.
20:57 THE PARTICLES WERE MOVING AROUND VERY FAST,
20:59 AND AS THE UNIVERSE COOLS DOWN,
21:01 THE PARTICLES MOVE MORE SLOWLY
21:03 AND, IN SOME SENSE, LESS RANDOMLY.
21:06 narrator: AS THE UNIVERSE COOLS,
21:08 THE PARTICLES STOP CHANGING BACK INTO ENERGY.
21:20 NOW THERE ARE MORE AND MORE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES,
21:24 BUT IT'S STILL A HOT, VIOLENT PLACE.
21:27 ALL THIS IS HAPPENING IN FRACTIONS OF A SECOND
21:31 TOO SMALL TO DETECT,
21:33 BUT THE BIG BANG IS MOVING INTO A CRITICAL STAGE NOW,
21:37 A TITANIC BATTLE BETWEEN MATTER
21:39 AND THE ONE THING THAT CAN DESTROY THE UNIVERSE
21:42 BEFORE IT EVEN GETS STARTED,
21:45 ANTIMATTER.
22:01 EVERYTHING IN THE UNIVERSE
22:03 IS MADE FROM MATTER,
22:07 FROM THE SMALLEST ROCK TO THE LARGEST STAR.
22:10 AND ALL THE MATTER THERE WILL EVER BE
22:13 WAS CREATED FROM THE PURE ENERGY OF THE BIG BANG.
22:22 EINSTEIN'S EQUATION, "E" EQUALS "MC" SQUARED,
22:26 SAYS THAT ENERGY TRANSFORMS INTO MATTER,
22:29 BUT IT WAS JUST A THEORY.
22:32 TODAY SCIENCE IS ABLE TO TEST THAT THEORY.
22:40 THIS IS CERN IN SWITZERLAND,
22:42 HOME TO THE WORLD'S LARGEST MACHINE.
22:48 IT'S THE SIZE OF A CITY
22:50 AND ENGINEERED TO RE-CREATE THE CONDITIONS
22:53 MILLIONTHS OF A SECOND AFTER THE BIG BANG.
22:56 - IF WE WANT TO PROBE EVER SMALLER SCALES,
22:59 PARADOXICALLY, WE NEED AN EVER BIGGER MACHINE.
23:02 THERE'S JUST NO OTHER WAY OF DOING IT.
23:04 SO BIG MACHINES MEANS SMALL PHYSICS
23:07 MEANS EARLY TIMES
23:09 AND THEREFORE GETTING CLOSER AND CLOSER
23:11 TO THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE ITSELF.
23:14 narrator: THIS MONSTER MACHINE IS CALLED A COLLIDER.
23:17 IT'S DESIGNED TO TAKE US BACK
23:19 TO THOSE FIRST FRACTIONS OF A SECOND AFTER THE BIG BANG.
23:23 IT'S A 12-FOOT-WIDE CONCRETE-LINED CIRCULAR TUNNEL
23:27 17 MILES AROUND.
23:33 THE COLLIDER MAKES TINY PARTICLES OF MATTER
23:36 SMASH INTO EACH OTHER AT ALMOST THE SPEED OF LIGHT.
23:46 FOR A SPLIT SECOND,
23:48 THOSE COLLISIONS GENERATE TURBOCHARGED ENERGY
23:50 SIMILAR TO THE EXPLOSIVE FORCE OF THE BIG BANG.
23:54 AND THEN THAT PURE ENERGY
23:57 BRIEFLY TRANSFORMS INTO MATTER
24:00 JUST LIKE IT DID NEARLY 14 BILLION YEARS AGO.
24:07 BUT A MONSTER MACHINE NEEDS A MONSTER DETECTOR
24:10 TO SEE THESE COLLISIONS.
24:13 - THIS DETECTOR IS FIVE STORIES TALL
24:15 AND WEIGHS OVER 7,000 TONS.
24:18 AND 7,000 TONS, TO GIVE YOU A SENSE OF PERSPECTIVE,
24:21 IS THE WEIGHT OF THE EIFFEL TOWER.
24:23 narrator: BUT AS BIG AS IT IS,
24:25 IT CAN'T SEE THE ACTUAL PARTICLES OF NEW MATTER.
24:28 THEY HANG AROUND FOR JUST A SPLIT SECOND
24:31 AND MOVE SO FAST, IT CAN ONLY RECORD THEIR TRAILS.
24:36 - THERE'S A LOT OF ENERGY IN THESE PARTICLES.
24:38 THEY MOVE VERY, VERY QUICKLY, AND SO YOU NEED
24:40 A VERY LARGE AMOUNT OF DETECTOR IN ORDER TO BE ABLE
24:44 TO MAP THE PATH OF THESE PARTICLES VERY PRECISELY.
24:47 SO THE DETECTOR IS SO BIG
24:49 BECAUSE YOU NEED BETTER RESOLUTION.
24:51 IT WORKS EXACTLY THE SAME AS A CAMERA.
24:54 THE MORE PIXELS YOU HAVE, THE BETTER THE PICTURE.
24:56 IT'S EXACTLY THE SAME HERE.
24:57 WE JUST HAVE A FIVE-STORY CAMERA.
25:01 narrator: SCIENTISTS HOPE THAT IT'LL REVEAL
25:03 JUST HOW ENERGY TRANSFORMS INTO MATTER--
25:07 BUT NOT JUST ANY MATTER,
25:10 THE KIND OF MATTER THAT EMERGED 14 BILLION YEARS AGO
25:14 AT THE DAWN OF TIME ITSELF.
25:19 BUT THE DAWN OF TIME WAS A CRITICAL MOMENT
25:22 IN THE BIRTH OF THE UNIVERSE,
25:24 BECAUSE PURE ENERGY ALSO PRODUCED
25:26 ONE OF THE MOST DANGEROUS THINGS IN THE UNIVERSE,
25:29 ANTIMATTER.
25:31 THAT'S RIGHT, ANTIMATTER.
25:33 IT'S REAL.
25:38 - ANTIMATTER IS THE MIRROR IMAGE OF ORDINARY MATTER.
25:41 HOWEVER, MATTER HAS ONE CHARGE,
25:44 AND ANTIMATTER HAS THE OPPOSITE CHARGE.
25:46 IF THERE WAS AN ANTI-ME MADE OUT OF ANTIMATTER,
25:50 THAT PERSON IN PRINCIPLE COULD LOOK EXACTLY LIKE ME,
25:53 SAME PERSONALITY QUIRKS, SAME EVERYTHING,
25:56 EXCEPT, OF COURSE, WHEN I DECIDE TO SHAKE HIS HAND,
25:59 AT THAT POINT, WE BOTH WILL BLOW OURSELVES TO SMITHEREENS
26:02 IN A GIGANTIC NUCLEAR EXPLOSION.
26:07 narrator: MATTER WITH A POSITIVE CHARGE
26:09 LOCKS HORNS WITH ITS ARCHENEMY, ANTIMATTER,
26:13 WITH A NEGATIVE CHARGE.
26:15 THE FATE OF THE UNIVERSE HANGS IN THE BALANCE
26:18 OF THIS EPIC BATTLE.
26:20 EQUAL AMOUNTS OF MATTER AND ANTIMATTER
26:22 WILL CANCEL EACH OTHER OUT--
26:24 NOT GOOD.
26:26 - A UNIVERSE WITH EQUAL AMOUNTS OF MATTER AND ANTIMATTER
26:29 IS EQUIVALENT TO A UNIVERSE WITH NO MATTER AT ALL,
26:31 BECAUSE THE MATTER AND ANTIMATTER
26:33 WILL ANNIHILATE BACK INTO PURE RADIATION,
26:36 AND THERE WILL BE NOTHING INTERESTING,
26:38 NO STARS AND GALAXIES AND PEOPLE IN BETWEEN.
26:43 narrator: LIKE A COSMIC GAME OF RISK,
26:45 THE SIDE WITH THE MOST SOLDIERS WINS.
26:50 THE SCORE WAS VERY CLOSE, BUT THERE WAS A WINNER.
26:57 - FOR EVERY BILLION PARTICLES OF ANTIMATTER,
26:59 THERE WERE A BILLION AND ONE PARTICLES OF MATTER.
27:03 THAT WAS THE MOMENT OF CREATION.
27:06 THE ONE EXTRA PARTICLE OF MATTER IN EACH LITTLE VOLUME SURVIVES,
27:10 SURVIVES ENOUGH TO FORM
27:12 ALL THE MATTER WE SEE IN THE STARS AND GALAXIES TODAY.
27:21 narrator: ONE IN A BILLION MIGHT NOT SOUND LIKE MUCH,
27:23 BUT IT'S ENOUGH TO BUILD A UNIVERSE.
27:27 - WE'RE THE LEFTOVERS.
27:29 SO BELIEVE IT OR NOT,
27:31 EVERYTHING YOU SEE AROUND YOU,
27:33 THE ATOMS OF YOUR BODY, THE ATOMS OF THE STARS,
27:35 ARE NOTHING BUT LEFTOVERS,
27:37 LEFTOVERS FROM THIS ANCIENT COLLISION
27:40 BETWEEN MATTER AND ANTIMATTER.
27:47 narrator: LUCKY FOR US, THERE WAS ENOUGH LEFT OVER
27:50 TO MAKE ALL THE STARS AND PLANETS.
27:55 AND THE UNIVERSE IS STILL
27:57 LESS THAN ONE SECOND OLD,
28:00 BUT NOW IT'S SWARMING
28:02 WITH TINY PRIMITIVE PARTICLES.
28:07 THE NEXT STAGE IS ASSEMBLING THOSE TINY PARTICLES
28:11 INTO THE FIRST ATOMS.
28:21 GIVE OR TAKE A COUPLE OF PLANCK TIMES,
28:24 THE UNIVERSE IS NEARLY A SECOND OLD
28:27 AND STILL A VERY STRANGE PLACE.
28:31 BUT MATTER HAS WON THE BATTLE WITH ANTIMATTER.
28:36 AND NOW IT'S TIME TO BUILD THE UNIVERSE.
28:41 IT'S STILL EXTREMELY HOT
28:43 AND EXPANDING INCREDIBLY FAST.
28:47 - WHEN THE UNIVERSE WAS A SECOND OLD,
28:49 THE PARTICLES IN IT WERE VERY DIFFERENT
28:51 THAN THE PARTICLES WE SEE TODAY.
28:53 THERE WERE NO ATOMS.
28:54 NOTHING THAT WE RECOGNIZE IN THE ROOM AROUND US TODAY
28:57 YET EXISTED.
29:01 narrator: NOW ALL THAT BEGINS TO CHANGE.
29:05 TEMPERATURES CONTINUE TO COOL.
29:09 AND AS THE PRIMITIVE PARTICLES KEEP SLOWING DOWN,
29:12 THEY START BONDING TOGETHER
29:14 TO FORM THE ATOMS OF THE FIRST ELEMENTS.
29:19 THE FIRST ONE TO FORM IS HYDROGEN.
29:24 THEN OVER THE NEXT THREE MINUTES,
29:26 THE UNIVERSE BEGINS
29:28 TO CREATE TWO MORE ELEMENTS, HELIUM AND LITHIUM.
29:38 - WE WENT FROM A UNIVERSE THAT WAS INFINITELY SMALL
29:41 TO A UNIVERSE THAT WAS LIGHT-YEARS IN SIZE.
29:44 IN THE FIRST THREE MINUTES,
29:46 ESSENTIALLY EVERYTHING INTERESTING
29:48 THAT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN IN THE UNIVERSE HAPPENED.
29:51 narrator: WELL, NOT QUITE.
29:53 IF YOU WERE THERE, YOU COULDN'T SEE IT.
29:56 - WHEN WE LOOK AT THE NIGHT SKY,
29:58 WE CAN SEE LITERALLY BILLIONS OF YEARS INTO THE PAST,
30:01 AND WE THINK IT'S ALWAYS BEEN THAT WAY.
30:04 NOPE, NOT TRUE.
30:06 380,000 YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG,
30:09 THAT'S WHEN THE UNIVERSE BEGAN TO BECOME TRANSPARENT,
30:12 BUT BEFORE THEN, IT WAS MILKY.
30:18 narrator: THERE IS A MILKY SOUP OF LOOSE ELECTRONS.
30:27 THE YOUNG UNIVERSE HAS TO COOL DOWN ENOUGH
30:30 FOR THE ELECTRONS TO SLOW DOWN
30:32 AND STICK TO NEW ATOMS.
30:35 IT TOOK A LONG TIME FOR ALL OF THE HYDROGEN, HELIUM,
30:39 AND LITHIUM ATOMS IN THE UNIVERSE TO FORM.
30:42 SCIENTISTS CALCULATE IT TOOK 380,000 YEARS
30:46 FOR THE ELECTRONS TO SLOW DOWN ENOUGH
30:48 SO THAT THE UNIVERSE COULD START MASS-PRODUCING ATOMS.
30:52 WHEN THAT HAPPENS, THE MILKY FOG CLEARS.
30:56 THE FIRST LIGHT ESCAPES AND RACES ACROSS THE UNIVERSE.
31:00 NEARLY 14 BILLION YEARS LATER,
31:03 TWO YOUNG SCIENTISTS IN NEW JERSEY
31:06 PICK IT UP BY ACCIDENT.
31:11 IN 1964, ARNO PENZIAS AND ROBERT WILSON
31:14 WERE MAPPING RADIO SIGNALS ACROSS OUR GALAXY.
31:18 EVERYWHERE THEY LOOKED,
31:20 THEY PICKED UP A STRANGE BACKGROUND HUM.
31:24 THEY FIRST SUSPECTED THEIR EQUIPMENT.
31:27 MAYBE PIGEON DROPPINGS ON THE ANTENNA
31:29 WERE CAUSING THE STRANGE SIGNAL.
31:32 BUT AFTER CLEANING THE ANTENNA,
31:35 THE MYSTERIOUS HUM REMAINED.
31:37 SO MUCH FOR PIGEON DROPPINGS.
31:45 - PENZIAS DELIVERED A TALK AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY,
31:48 AND ACCORDING TO LORE, ONE PERSON IN THE BACK SAID,
31:51 "EITHER YOU HAVE DISCOVERED THE EFFECTS OF BIRD DROPPINGS
31:55 OR THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE."
32:00 narrator: IT WAS, IN FACT, THE MOMENT OF CREATION
32:03 NEARLY 14 BILLION YEARS AGO
32:06 WHEN THOSE FIRST ATOMS GOT THEIR ELECTRONS.
32:12 THAT'S THE MOMENT WHEN THE MILKY CLOUD CLEARS
32:15 AND THE NEW UNIVERSE COMES INTO VIEW
32:18 FOR THE FIRST TIME.
32:21 TO CAPTURE BETTER IMAGES OF THIS CRITICAL EVENT,
32:24 NASA LAUNCHED THE COSMIC BACKGROUND EXPLORER SATELLITE,
32:28 OR COBE.
32:30 THEY POINTED IT OUT INTO SPACE,
32:32 WHERE IT TOOK THE TEMPERATURE OF THE UNIVERSE.
32:35 BY MEASURING DIFFERENCES IN TEMPERATURE ACROSS SPACE,
32:39 THEY CREATED THE FIRST MAP OF OUR EARLY UNIVERSE.
32:43 THE IMAGES WERE CALLED THE FACE OF GOD.
32:46 - WE GOT GORGEOUS PICTURES, BABY PICTURES,
32:49 OF THE INFANT UNIVERSE WHEN IT WAS 380,000 YEARS OF AGE,
32:53 BUT THERE WERE PROBLEMS WITH IT.
32:55 THE PICTURE WAS VERY FUZZY.
32:57 THE COBE RESULTS WERE SIMPLY NOT GOOD ENOUGH.
33:03 - POSITION LOOKING GOOD. - WE HAVE LIFTOFF.
33:05 narrator: SO NASA LAUNCHED AN EVEN MORE ADVANCED SATELLITE,
33:08 WMAP, THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE.
33:12 IN 2001, DAVID SPERGEL WAS PART OF THE TEAM
33:16 LOOKING FOR A CLEARER IMAGE OF THE EARLY UNIVERSE.
33:20 - IT WAS EXCITING TO GO TO THE CAPE.
33:23 IT WAS ONE OF THESE MOMENTS WHERE WE WERE SITTING THERE
33:26 WATCHING THIS-- I WAS THERE WITH MY FAMILY,
33:28 WATCHING THE ROCKET GO OFF.
33:31 IT WAS VERY EXCITING WHEN, WITHIN ABOUT A DAY,
33:33 WE WERE ABLE TO GET OUR FIRST SIGNAL FROM THE SATELLITE
33:36 AND KNOW IT WAS WORKING AND WORKING PROPERLY.
33:40 narrator: THIS IS THE MOST DETAILED PICTURE
33:42 OF THE EARLY UNIVERSE EVER TAKEN,
33:44 JUST 380,000 YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG.
33:51 THE RED AND YELLOW AREAS ARE WARMER,
33:53 THE BLUE AND GREEN REGIONS COOLER,
33:55 AND THOSE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES
33:57 ARE CLUES TO THE FUTURE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE.
34:05 - WE SEE TINY VARIATIONS IN TEMPERATURE.
34:07 THOSE TINY VARIATIONS IN TEMPERATURE
34:09 REFLECT SMALL VARIATIONS IN DENSITY.
34:12 THIS REGION HAS MORE MATTER. THIS REGION HAS LESS MATTER.
34:15 narrator: LIKE A BLUEPRINT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION
34:17 OF OUR UNIVERSE, THIS IMAGE SHOWS US
34:20 WHERE THERE'S MORE MATTER AND WHERE THERE'S LESS.
34:24 REGIONS WITH NO MATTER
34:26 WILL BECOME EMPTY SPACE.
34:30 AREAS WITH DENSER MATTER
34:32 WILL BECOME THE CONSTRUCTION SITES
34:34 OF GALAXIES, STARS, AND PLANETS.
34:42 - THESE ARE THE FLUCTUATIONS THAT WILL GROW TO FORM GALAXIES.
34:44 SO IF IT WASN'T FOR THOSE LITTLE DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS,
34:47 YOU AND I WOULD NOT BE HERE TODAY.
34:54 narrator: OUR UNIVERSE IS NOW 380,000 YEARS OLD
34:57 AND TRILLIONS AND TRILLIONS OF MILES ACROSS.
35:03 CLOUDS OF HYDROGEN AND HELIUM GAS
35:05 FLOAT THROUGH SPACE.
35:08 IT WILL TAKE ANOTHER 200 MILLION YEARS
35:11 BEFORE THOSE GASES CREATE THE FIRST STARS.
35:14 - THE FIRST STARS IGNITED THE UNIVERSE
35:18 INTO WHAT MUST HAVE BEEN THE MOST AMAZING FIREWORKS.
35:28 THE UNIVERSE WENT FROM THE DARK AGES
35:31 TO AN AGE OF SPLENDOR
35:33 WHEN THE FIRST STARS ILLUMINATED THE GAS,
35:36 AND THE UNIVERSE BEGAN TO GLOW
35:38 IN MAJESTIC FASHION.
35:40 I WISH I HAD BEEN THERE.
35:43 - IT WAS LIKE CHRISTMAS TREE LIGHTS TURNING ON.
35:46 THE UNIVERSE BEGAN TO LIGHT UP IN ALL DIRECTIONS
35:49 UNTIL YOU FORM THE BEAUTIFUL MOSAIC
35:52 WE NOW SEE TODAY.
36:01 narrator: MORE AND MORE STARS TURN ON.
36:04 1 BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG,
36:08 THE FIRST GALAXY FORMS.
36:12 OVER THE NEXT 8 BILLION YEARS,
36:14 COUNTLESS MORE TAKE SHAPE.
36:18 THEN ABOUT 5 BILLION YEARS AGO
36:21 IN A QUIET CORNER OF ONE OF THOSE GALAXIES,
36:24 GRAVITY BEGINS
36:26 TO DRAW IN DUST AND GAS.
36:32 GRADUALLY, THEY CLUMP TOGETHER
36:35 AND GIVE BIRTH TO A STAR,
36:38 OUR SUN.
36:44 9 BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG,
36:47 OUR TINY SOLAR SYSTEM SPRINGS TO LIFE
36:51 AND, WITH IT, PLANET EARTH.
36:55 EVERYTHING THERE IS EXISTS
36:58 BECAUSE OF THE BIG BANG,
37:00 AND IT'S STILL GOING ON.
37:02 OUR UNIVERSE IS STILL EXPANDING,
37:05 BUT IT WON'T JUST KEEP GOING FOREVER.
37:08 OUR UNIVERSE HAD A BEGINNING,
37:11 AND IT WILL ALSO HAVE AN END.
37:19 IN THE 14 BILLION YEARS SINCE THE BIG BANG,
37:22 GALAXIES HAVE BEEN CREATED...
37:27 FILLED WITH STARS, PLANETS, AND MOONS,
37:31 AND THE UNIVERSE HAS BEEN EXPANDING
37:34 THE WHOLE TIME.
37:38 - WE'VE LEARNED SPACE IS QUITE BIG,
37:40 AT LEAST 150 BILLION LIGHT-YEARS ACROSS.
37:43 narrator: THE UNIVERSE MAY BE INFINITE.
37:47 IT MIGHT LITERALLY GO ON FOREVER.
37:51 - THE ANSWER IS, THERE DOESN'T HAVE TO BE ANYTHING.
37:53 IN PRINCIPLE, THE UNIVERSE COULD BE INFINITE
37:55 AND THERE'S NO OUTSIDE, OR IT COULD BE CLOSED ON ITSELF.
37:58 IT COULD BE SUCH THAT IF I LOOKED FAR ENOUGH
38:00 IN THAT DIRECTION, I'D SEE THE BACK OF MY HEAD.
38:03 narrator: WE MAY NEVER KNOW
38:05 IF THE BIG BANG PRODUCED A UNIVERSE THAT GOES ON FOREVER.
38:11 BUT WE DO KNOW
38:13 THAT THE BIG BANG HASN'T STOPPED YET.
38:16 - THE BIG BANG IS REALLY CONTINUING NOW.
38:18 WE'RE CONTINUING TO BANG, IF YOU WANT,
38:20 IN THE SENSE THAT THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE IS CONTINUING.
38:26 - ONE OF THE MOST ASTOUNDING DISCOVERIES
38:28 IN THE LAST FEW YEARS HAS BEEN THE REALIZATION
38:30 THAT OUR UNIVERSE
38:31 IS NOT SLOWING DOWN LIKE WE ONCE THOUGHT,
38:33 BUT IT'S ACTUALLY SPEEDING UP.
38:35 IT'S ACCELERATING. IT'S IN A RUNAWAY MODE.
38:38 WE NOW BELIEVE THERE'S SOMETHING CALLED DARK ENERGY,
38:42 THE ENERGY OF NOTHING THAT IS PUSHING THE GALAXIES APART
38:46 AND IS KILLING THE UNIVERSE.
38:49 narrator: WE CAN'T SEE THIS DESTRUCTIVE FORCE,
38:52 AND WE HAVE NO IDEA WHY IT EXISTS,
38:56 BUT IT COULD MEAN THE END OF EVERYTHING CREATED
38:59 IN THE BIG BANG.
39:01 IF DARK ENERGY CONTINUES
39:04 PUSHING THE UNIVERSE APART,
39:06 OUR MILKY WAY GALAXY
39:08 COULD BECOME A LONELY OUTPOST.
39:11 100 BILLION YEARS FROM NOW,
39:13 MOST OF OUR GALACTIC NEIGHBORS WILL BE OUT OF SIGHT.
39:16 STARS WILL BURN OUT.
39:19 GALAXIES WILL GROW DARK.
39:22 EVEN ATOMS WILL TEAR APART.
39:26 THE BIRTH OF THE UNIVERSE,
39:28 THE BIG BANG, WAS OVER IN A FLASH,
39:30 BUT THE DEATH OF OUR UNIVERSE
39:32 WILL TAKE ALMOST FOREVER.
39:36 - THAT GREAT PHILOSOPHER OF THE WESTERN WORLD,
39:38 WOODY ALLEN, ONCE SAID,
39:41 "ETERNITY IS AN AWFUL LONG TIME,
39:44 ESPECIALLY TOWARD THE END."
39:49 narrator: FIGURING OUT HOW OUR UNIVERSE WILL END
39:52 IS AS DARK A MYSTERY AS THE BIG BANG.
39:57 IT COULD COLLAPSE BACK IN ON ITSELF
40:00 LIKE A BALLOON WHEN THE AIR IS LET OUT.
40:07 - WILL THE UNIVERSE END WITH A BIG CRUNCH,
40:09 A REVERSE OF THE BIG BANG,
40:11 OR DOES IT END BY EXPANDING OUT AND BECOMING COLD AND DARK?
40:15 IF YOU WISH, WOULD IT END IN FIRE OR ICE
40:18 OR WITH A BANG OR A WHIMPER?
40:23 narrator: IF THE UNIVERSE COLLAPSES,
40:25 IT MIGHT TRIGGER ANOTHER BIG BANG.
40:37 MAYBE THAT'S ALREADY HAPPENED
40:41 AND WE'RE JUST ONE IN A LONG LINE OF UNIVERSES.
40:46 - PERSONALLY, I BELIEVE IN CONTINUAL GENESIS.
40:50 THAT IS, THERE'S A NEVER-ENDING PROCESS
40:52 WHEREBY UNIVERSES COLLIDE,
40:55 SPLIT APART, GIVE BIRTH TO NEW UNIVERSES,
40:58 PERHAPS WITH DIFFERENT LAWS OF PHYSICS WITHIN EACH UNIVERSE.
41:05 - MAYBE THIS ISN'T THE FIRST TIME IT'S HAPPENED.
41:07 MAYBE IT'S CYCLIC AND IT GOES ROUND AND ROUND AGAIN.
41:09 EVENTUALLY, WE'LL COLLAPSE,
41:11 AND THE WHOLE THING WILL START OVER AGAIN.
41:13 narrator: ONE UNIVERSE OR MANY,
41:15 THEY ALL START WITH A BIG BANG.
41:22 - EVERYTHING THAT MAKES US HUMAN,
41:25 THE ATOMS IN OUR BODIES, THE JEWELRY WE WEAR,
41:28 ALL THE THINGS THAT LEAD TO THE TRAGEDY OF LIFE
41:31 AND THE BEAUTY AND THE EXCITEMENT,
41:33 LOVE, EVERYTHING ELSE,
41:35 AROSE BECAUSE OF PROCESSES THAT HAPPENED
41:39 14 BILLION YEARS AGO.
41:42 AND IF WE REALLY WANT TO UNDERSTAND OURSELVES
41:44 AT SOME FUNDAMENTAL LEVEL,
41:46 WE REALLY HAVE TO UNDERSTAND THE BIG BANG.
41:51 narrator: 14 BILLION YEARS AGO,
41:53 THE BIG BANG CREATED TIME AND SPACE,
41:56 OUR WHOLE VAST UNIVERSE
41:59 AND EVERYTHING IN IT, INCLUDING US.
42:07 - SOME PEOPLE ASK THE QUESTION, "WHAT'S IN IT FOR ME?"
42:10 THE BIG BANG GAVE US EVERYTHING WE SEE AROUND US,
42:14 THE DISTRIBUTION OF GALAXIES AND STARS.
42:17 IT SET INTO MOTION THE CREATION OF ELEMENTS
42:20 THAT WE SEE IN THE UNIVERSE,
42:21 AND EVEN THE LAWS OF PHYSICS THEMSELVES,
42:24 WE THINK, WERE BORN AT THE INSTANT OF CREATION.
42:33 narrator: EVERYTHING STARTED WITH THE BIG BANG,
42:36 ONE BRIEF MOMENT IN TIME
42:38 14 BILLION YEARS AGO
42:41 THAT CONTAINS THE ANSWERS TO OUR GREATEST QUESTIONS
42:45 ABOUT OUR PAST, OUR PRESENT,
42:48 AND OUR FUTURE.
42:50 EACH DISCOVERY BRINGS US ONE STEP CLOSER
42:54 TO UNDERSTANDING HOW THE UNIVERSE WORKS.


Big Bang Glossaries and Dictionaries for Kids



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